Source code for

# This file is part of Checkbox.
# Copyright 2012, 2013 Canonical Ltd.
# Written by:
#   Zygmunt Krynicki <>
# Checkbox is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3,
# as published by the Free Software Foundation.

# Checkbox is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with Checkbox.  If not, see <>.

:mod:`` -- storage for sessions

This module contains storage support code for handling sessions. Using the
:class:`SessionStorageRepository` one can enumerate sessions at a particular
location. Each location is wrapped by a :class:`SessionStorage` instance. That
latter class be used to create (allocate) and remove all of the files
associated with a particular session.

import datetime
import errno
import logging
import os
import shutil
import stat
import sys
import tempfile

from plainbox.i18n import gettext as _, ngettext
from plainbox.impl.runner import slugify

logger = logging.getLogger("")

[docs]class SessionStorageRepository: """ Helper class to enumerate filesystem artefacts of current or past Sessions This class collaborates with :class:`SessionStorage`. The basic use-case is to open a well-known location and enumerate all the sessions that are stored there. This allows to create :class:`SessionStorage` instances to further manage each session (such as remove them by calling :meth:SessionStorage.remove()`) """ def __init__(self, location=None): """ Initialize new repository at the specified location. The location does not have to be an existing directory. It will be created on demand. Typically it should be instantiated with the default location. """ if location is None: location = self.get_default_location() self._location = location @property def location(self): """ pathname of the repository """ return self._location
[docs] def get_storage_list(self): """ Enumerate stored sessions in the repository. If the repository directory is not present then an empty list is returned. :returns: list of :class:`SessionStorage` representing discovered sessions sorted by their age (youngest first) """ logger.debug(_("Enumerating sessions in %s"), self._location) try: # Try to enumerate the directory item_list = sorted(os.listdir(self._location), key=lambda x: os.stat(os.path.join( self._location, x)).st_mtime, reverse=True) except OSError as exc: # If the directory does not exist, # silently return empty collection if exc.errno == errno.ENOENT: return [] # Don't silence any other errors raise session_list = [] # Check each item by looking for directories for item in item_list: pathname = os.path.join(self.location, item) # Make sure not to follow any symlinks here stat_result = os.lstat(pathname) # Consider non-hidden directories that end with the word .session if (not item.startswith(".") and item.endswith(".session") and stat.S_ISDIR(stat_result.st_mode)): logger.debug(_("Found possible session in %r"), pathname) session = SessionStorage(pathname) session_list.append(session) # Return the full list return session_list
def __iter__(self): """ Same as :meth:`get_storage_list()` """ return iter(self.get_storage_list())
[docs] @classmethod def get_default_location(cls): """ Get the default location of the session state repository The default location is defined by ``$PLAINBOX_SESSION_REPOSITORY`` which must be a writable directory (created if needed) where plainbox will keep its session data. The default location, if the environment variable is not provided, is ``${XDG_CACHE_HOME:-$HOME/.cache}/plainbox/sessions`` """ repo_dir = os.environ.get('PLAINBOX_SESSION_REPOSITORY') if repo_dir is not None: repo_dir = os.path.abspath(repo_dir) else: # Pick XDG_CACHE_HOME from environment xdg_cache_home = os.environ.get('XDG_CACHE_HOME') # If not set or empty use the default ~/.cache/ if not xdg_cache_home: xdg_cache_home = os.path.join( os.path.expanduser('~'), '.cache') # Use a directory relative to XDG_CACHE_HOME repo_dir = os.path.join(xdg_cache_home, 'plainbox', 'sessions') if (repo_dir is not None and os.path.exists(repo_dir) and not os.path.isdir(repo_dir)): logger.warning( _("Session repository %s it not a directory"), repo_dir) repo_dir = None if (repo_dir is not None and os.path.exists(repo_dir) and not os.access(repo_dir, os.W_OK)): logger.warning( _("Session repository %s is read-only"), repo_dir) repo_dir = None if repo_dir is None: repo_dir = tempfile.mkdtemp() logger.warning( _("Using temporary directory %s as session repository"), repo_dir) return repo_dir
[docs]class LockedStorageError(IOError): """ Exception raised when SessionStorage.save_checkpoint() finds an existing 'next' file from a (presumably) previous call to save_checkpoint() that got interrupted """
[docs]class SessionStorage: """ Abstraction for storage area that is used by :class:`SessionState` to keep some persistent and volatile data. This class implements functions performing input/output operations on session checkpoint data. The location property can be used for keeping any additional files or directories but keep in mind that they will be removed by :meth:`SessionStorage.remove()` This class indirectly collaborates with :class:`SessionSuspendHelper` and :class:`SessionResumeHelper`. """ _SESSION_FILE = 'session' _SESSION_FILE_NEXT = '' def __init__(self, location): """ Initialize a :class:`SessionStorage` with the given location. The location is not created. If you want to ensure that it exists call :meth:`create()` instead. """ self._location = location def __repr__(self): return "<{} location:{!r}>".format( self.__class__.__name__, self.location) @property def location(self): """ location of the session storage """ return self._location @property def id(self): """ identifier of the session storage (name of the random directory) """ return os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(self.location))[0] @property def session_file(self): """ pathname of the session state file """ return os.path.join(self._location, self._SESSION_FILE)
[docs] @classmethod def create(cls, base_dir, prefix='pbox-'): """ Create a new :class:`SessionStorage` in a random subdirectory of the specified base directory. The base directory is also created if necessary. :param base_dir: Directory in which a random session directory will be created. Typically the base directory should be obtained from :meth:`SessionStorageRepository.get_default_location()` :param prefix: String which should prefix all session filenames. The prefix is sluggified before use. """ if not os.path.exists(base_dir): os.makedirs(base_dir) isoformat = "%Y-%m-%dT%H.%M.%S" timestamp = datetime.datetime.utcnow().strftime(isoformat) location = os.path.join(base_dir, "{prefix}{timestamp}{suffix}".format( prefix=slugify(prefix), timestamp=timestamp, suffix='.session')) uniq = 1 while os.path.exists(location): location = os.path.join( base_dir, "{prefix}{timestamp}_({uniq}){suffix}".format( prefix=slugify(prefix), timestamp=timestamp, uniq=uniq, suffix='.session')) uniq += 1 os.mkdir(location) logger.debug(_("Created new storage in %r"), location) self = cls(location) return self
[docs] def remove(self): """ Remove all filesystem entries associated with this instance. """ logger.debug(_("Removing session storage from %r"), self._location) def error_handler(function, path, excinfo): logger.warning(_("Cannot remove %s"), path) shutil.rmtree(self._location, onerror=error_handler)
[docs] def load_checkpoint(self): """ Load checkpoint data from the filesystem :returns: data from the most recent checkpoint :rtype: bytes :raises IOError, OSError: on various problems related to accessing the filesystem """ # Open the location directory location_fd =, os.O_DIRECTORY) try: # Open the current session file in the location directory session_fd = self._SESSION_FILE, os.O_RDONLY, dir_fd=location_fd) # Stat the file to know how much to read session_stat = os.fstat(session_fd) try: # Read session data data =, session_stat.st_size) if len(data) != session_stat.st_size: raise IOError(_("partial read?")) finally: # Close the session file os.close(session_fd) except IOError as exc: if exc.errno == errno.ENOENT: # Treat lack of 'session' file as an empty file return b'' raise else: return data finally: # Close the location directory os.close(location_fd)
[docs] def save_checkpoint(self, data): """ Save checkpoint data to the filesystem. The directory associated with this :class:`SessionStorage` must already exist. Typically the instance should be obtained by calling :meth:`SessionStorage.create()` which will ensure that this is already the case. :raises TypeError: if data is not a bytes object. :raises LockedStorageError: if leftovers from previous save_checkpoint() have been detected. Normally those should never be here but in certain cases that is possible. Callers might want to call :meth:`break_lock()` to resolve the problem and try again. :raises IOError, OSError: on various problems related to accessing the filesystem. Typically permission errors may be reported here. """ if not isinstance(data, bytes): raise TypeError("data must be bytes") logger.debug(ngettext( "Saving %d byte of data (%s)", "Saving %d bytes of data (%s)", len(data)), len(data), "UNIX, python 3.3 or newer") # Open the location directory, we need to fsync that later # XXX: this may fail, maybe we should keep the fd open all the time? location_fd =, os.O_DIRECTORY) logger.debug( _("Opened %r as descriptor %d"), self._location, location_fd) try: # Open the "next" file in the location_directory # # Use openat(2) to ensure we always open a file relative to the # directory we already opened above. This is essential for fsync(2) # calls made below. # # Use "write" + "create" + "exclusive" flags so that no race # condition is possible. # # This will never return -1, it throws IOError when anything is # wrong. The caller has to catch this. # # As a special exception, this code handles EEXISTS # (FIleExistsError) and converts that to LockedStorageError # that can be especially handled by some layer above. try: next_session_fd = self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT | os.O_EXCL, 0o644, dir_fd=location_fd) except FileExistsError: raise LockedStorageError() logger.debug( _("Opened next session file %s as descriptor %d"), self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, next_session_fd) try: # Write session data to disk # # I cannot find conclusive evidence but it seems that # os.write() handles partial writes internally. In case we do # get a partial write _or_ we run out of disk space, raise an # explicit IOError. num_written = os.write(next_session_fd, data) logger.debug(ngettext( "Wrote %d byte of data to descriptor %d", "Wrote %d bytes of data to descriptor %d", num_written), num_written, next_session_fd) if num_written != len(data): raise IOError(_("partial write?")) except Exception as exc: logger.warning(_("Unable to complete write: %r"), exc) # If anything goes wrong we should unlink the next file. As # with the open() call above we use unlinkat to prevent race # conditions. # TRANSLATORS: unlinking as in deleting a file logger.warning(_("Unlinking %r"), self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT) os.unlink(self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, dir_fd=location_fd) else: # If the write was successful we must flush kernel buffers. # # We want to be sure this data is really on disk by now as we # may crash the machine soon after this method exits. logger.debug( # TRANSLATORS: please don't translate fsync() _("Calling fsync() on descriptor %d"), next_session_fd) try: os.fsync(next_session_fd) except OSError as exc: logger.warning(_("Cannot synchronize file %r: %s"), self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, exc) finally: # Close the new session file logger.debug(_("Closing descriptor %d"), next_session_fd) os.close(next_session_fd) # Rename FILE_NEXT over FILE. # # Use renameat(2) to ensure that there is no race condition if the # location (directory) is being moved logger.debug( _("Renaming %r to %r"), self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, self._SESSION_FILE) try: os.rename(self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, self._SESSION_FILE, src_dir_fd=location_fd, dst_dir_fd=location_fd) except Exception as exc: # Same as above, if we fail we need to unlink the next file # otherwise any other attempts will not be able to open() it # with O_EXCL flag. logger.warning( _("Unable to rename/overwrite %r to %r: %r"), self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, self._SESSION_FILE, exc) # TRANSLATORS: unlinking as in deleting a file logger.warning(_("Unlinking %r"), self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT) os.unlink(self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT, dir_fd=location_fd) # Flush kernel buffers on the directory. # # This should ensure the rename operation is really on disk by now. # As noted above, this is essential for being able to survive # system crash immediately after exiting this method. # TRANSLATORS: please don't translate fsync() logger.debug(_("Calling fsync() on descriptor %d"), location_fd) try: os.fsync(location_fd) except OSError as exc: logger.warning(_("Cannot synchronize directory %r: %s"), self._location, exc) finally: # Close the location directory logger.debug(_("Closing descriptor %d"), location_fd) os.close(location_fd)
[docs] def break_lock(self): """ Forcibly unlock the storage by removing a file created during atomic filesystem operations of save_checkpoint(). This method might be useful if save_checkpoint() raises LockedStorageError. It removes the "next" file that is used for atomic rename. """ _next_session_pathname = os.path.join( self._location, self._SESSION_FILE_NEXT) logger.debug( # TRANSLATORS: unlinking as in deleting a file # Please keep the 'next' string untranslated _("Forcibly unlinking 'next' file %r"), _next_session_pathname) os.unlink(_next_session_pathname)
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